Le vent se lève ! … Il faut tenter de vivre !
The wind is rising! … We must try to live!
Then you must know from the start that if you want the truth without flummery you must seek it and seek it diligently.
Ibn Tufayl (Abu Bakr Ibn Tufayl) (c. 1105–85). Hayy Ibn Yaqzan.†
Having studied the world, one must seek joy,
For what use is the trap of baseless honour?
CLARERE AUDERE GAUDERE1
Be bright: be daring: be joyful.
That this seemingly classical tricolon urges mindfulness is plain and in the manner of the now somewhat trite, but still cogent, maxims carpe diem [b] (Latin ▸ pick, pluck or gather the day) and laetus in praesens [c] (Latin ▸ joyful in the present moment). Yet formerly only the first two elements of the tricolon formed the motto, these being a double pun on familial surnames:
Clarere (Latin) ▸
Geal is Irish Gaelic for white, bright, clear; and (figuratively) glad, happy; beloved, fond; Scottish Gaelic for white, bright, fair; from Old Irish gel (fair, white, bright, shining); from Proto-Celtic *gelos; related to Ancient Greek αἴγλη (I. the light of the sun or moon; II. radiance, gleam; III. metaph., splendour, glory); from Proto-Indo-European *ǵhelh- ‘to shine’.2
A matrilineal, Hardy:
Audere (Latin) ▸ to venture, dare, be bold, risk.
Hardy is Middle English for bold, courageous, daring; from Anglo-Norman French and Old French hardi (hardy, tough, durable), of Germanic origin.
Completing the tricolon:
Gaudere (Latin) ▸ to rejoice, be glad, be joyful, from Ancient Greek γαῦρος (exulting in).
The syllabic balance of the isocolonic Latin is retained in another translation: [be] bright: bold: glad. Appropriately for an English Arms, this renders well in Old Saxon: [bēon] berht beald glæd. To complete the ‘set’, it also provides yet another oblique pun on the bearer's name: the original meanings of glæd also included ‘bright, shining’: of Germanic origin; related to Old Norse glathr (bright, joyous), from Proto-Indo-European *ǵhlad-, again from Proto-Indo-European *ǵhelh- ‘to shine’. Almost homophonous with these ancient roots, although in a Hamito-Semitic language, is the Hebrew gil (גיל), which also has a secondary meaning of joy, happiness.
ΖΗΤΕΙΝ ΤΗΝ ΑΛΗΘΕΙΑΝ
Seek the truth.
For Christians, there is an obvious interpretation of the crest (Fig. 1) that accords with this Ancient Greek quotation: an eagle is a traditional attribute of St. John the Evangelist and for them the crest and motto taken together may evoke these passages in the New Testament:
And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free. John 8:32
… seek, and ye shall find … Matthew 7:7
although the implicit scepticism of the motto contrasts with the absolute certainty of the biblical promises.3
Whereas in the Middle Ages devices such as the crest would likely have been strongly evocative of the Johannine message — even without the distinctly anachronistic motto — it may now more widely be taken as representative of the triumph of freedom over bondage. Likewise, for Muslims it may call to mind the emblematic eagle of Salah-ad-Din Yusuf ibn-Ayyub (Saladin).
* The poem has a prefatory verse from a Pindar ode:
μή, φίλα ψυχά, βίον ἀθάνατον σπεῦδε, τὰν δ’ ἔμπρακτον.
Do not crave immortal life, my soul, but use to the full the resources of what is possible.
The urgency of Valéry's poem is shared:
?אם אין אני לי, מי לי? וכשאני לעצמי, מה אני? ואם לא עכשיו, אימתי
If I am not for myself, then who will be for me? When I am only for myself, then what am “I”? And if not now, when?
and was in turn, with striking but unwitting fidelity, summoned in an innocently hedonistic call of American West Coast youth in the 1960's, Surf's up!
\,,,/ or \m/ hang loose!
† The translation is taken from Lenn Evan Goodman's Ibn Tufayl. Hayy Ibn Yaqzan - a philosophical tale, University of Chicago Press, 2009. Others have expressed similar views:
Nicht die Wahrheit, in deren Besitz irgend ein Mensch ist, oder zu sein vermeint, sondern die aufrichtige Mühe, die er angewandt hat, hinter die Wahrheit zu kommen, macht den Wert des Menschen.
The true value of any man is not determined by his possession, supposed or real, of Truth, but rather by the sincere effort he has applied to get at the Truth.
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1778). Eine Duplik: Anti-Goetze.
Upon this first, and in one sense this sole, rule of reason, that in order to learn you must desire to learn, and in so desiring not be satisfied with what you already incline to think, there follows one corollary which itself deserves to be inscribed upon every wall of the city of philosophy: DO NOT BLOCK THE WAY OF INQUIRY.
On the other hand, to set up a philosophy which barricades the road of further advance toward the truth is the one unpardonable offence in reasoning, as it is also the one to which metaphysicians have in all ages shown themselves the most addicted.
Charles Sanders Peirce (1899). The First Rule of Reason.
χρὴ γὰρ εὖ μάλα πολλῶν ἵστορας φιλοσόφους ἄνδρας εἶναι καθ'
Those who are lovers of wisdom must be inquirers into many things.
Heraclitus of Ephesus (c. 535–c. 475 BC). Diels-Kranz. Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. Fragment 35.